APR: your source for nuclear news and analysis since April 16, 2010

Sunday, January 4, 2015

Nuclear Energy Blog Carnival 242

It's time for the Carnival of Nuclear Energy Bloggers to return to this site, after what seems like a rather long hiatus.  All that hiatus has done is cause you, the readers, NOT to have to endure the torture of the time-honored tradition here at Atomic Power Review -- the guessing game.

Since there's just no getting around it, what is this?

If you answer "well, that's a nuclear power plant!" you get no credit.  The only way to win is to tell me which nuclear plant this is; partial credit for telling me where it is.  The appearance of this nuclear plant is distinctive enough that it can be called unique.  The answer - and why I'm bothering to show it to you in the first place - after our Carnival entries.


Next Big Future - Brian Wang

Correctly Factoring Energy Costs

A paper shows that the failure to describe modern economies adequately is not due to the introduction of calculus into economic theory by the so-called 'marginal revolution' during the second half of the 19th century, when the mathematical formalism of physics decisively influenced economic theory. Rather, the culprit is the disregard of the first two laws of thermodynamics and of technological constraints in the theory of production and growth of industrial economies.

Solar and Nuclear can be built by 2030 to provide non-polluting power

While there have been large scale, significant solar power installations in the US recently they won't cover the entire energy requirement.  Next Big Future covers the solar increases as well as potential nuclear fuel improvements that could lead to a vast uprate of the nation's nuclear power plants.


Neutron Bytes - Dan Yurman

Japan turns ignition key on efforts to restart its nuclear fleet

Estimates vary, but experts converge on a view that at least half of the nation's 48 reactors will make progress toward, or restart, by the end of 2015.  Also, five-to-seven units in the 40-plus club may set out on the road to decommissioning by March 2016.


Forbes - James Conca

2014:  The Year In Energy

Energy soared in 2014, but the place to watch was China.  China has embarked upon the biggest energy expansion in world history and 2014 was the year in which it all came together.  China is diversifying its energy mix like no other country in the world, and now leads the world in almost all energy-related matters.  China now has more natural gas reserves than anyone, has installed more wind and solar than anyone, produces and uses more coal than anyone, and soon will add nuclear power to this list of "mosts." 


Canadian Energy Issues - Steve Aplin

To kick off 2015, carbon concentration in our planet's atmosphere spikes above 400 ppm, again; is this the permanent end of the 300's?

Steve Aplin of Canadian Energy Issues relates the unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide in the global atmosphere with the closure less than a week ago of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant.  He notes that 2015 marks the end of two eras:  the sub-400 ppm CO2 concentration era, and the end of nuclear power in Vermont. 


ANS Nuclear Cafe

Vermont Yankee - Born of "Yankee Ingenuity," Now No More

Will Davis writes a short epitaph looking back at the pioneering spirit that built New England, led its revolution both in governance and in energy, and relates these events to the closure of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant at the end of 2015.


Hiroshima Syndrome - Les Corrice

TEPCO and the NRA are non-transparent about contaminating the Pacific

It is no longer remotely possible that Fukushima Daiichi groundwater contamination is leeching into the Pacific Ocean.  By not reporting this to the world, TEPCO and the NRA are being non-transparent.


Nuke Power Talk - Gail Marcus

Nuclear Anniversaries for January - Nautilus, and other launches

As promised, Gail Marcus has published her second monthly list of nuclear milestones at Nuke Power Talk.  She highlights five major milestones this month, and mentions a couple of other events that occurred in January.  Highlights include the first cruise of the NAUTILUS and the startup of two commercial-scale reactors of different types. 


That's it for this week's entries - a big THANK YOU to all who sent in entries on what's usually a pretty slow time of the year for new blog postings.

Now... what was that nuclear power station?

The answer is Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant, in the Ukraine -- the largest nuclear plant anywhere in Europe, and presently one of the largest in existence.  The plant has six VVER-1000 nuclear plants, which are all built in a straight line - this, and the plant's sort of wide open views without the presence of cooling towers immediately by the units give it a unique appearance from any angle that is almost immediately recognizable.

Why mention it?  Well, this week, we've learned some things about nuclear power, social media, Russia, the Ukraine, and this power plant.  Here's the short version.

Two units at this plant experienced unplanned events (house power transformer failure) one month apart.  The first time, Unit 3 tripped and was off line for a few days; the second time, Unit 6 came off the grid but didn't trip the reactor (did not scram, that is) and was back on the grid later that day.  No big deal, right?

Wrong.  The first event was referred to erroneously by the Ukrainian PM in public as an "accident."  This took off around the world, led to a bond market shock, and dictated that I make the post you see at this link for the American Nuclear Society.  The second event differed in that it didn't make major news headlines by major media sources, but went viral just on internet social media; however the social media response led to this second and much different post right here on APR.  In both events, it was actually Russian media that initially pushed overblown reports implying dangerous events.  Russian sources continue -- in an unrelated campaign -- to push the idea that Westinghouse fuel will not be safe in Russian-made nuclear reactors (which, of course, has no basis in fact or principle and has been proven wrong conceptually as companies have made fuel for other companies' reactors since the very start of nuclear power.)

What's interesting about the viral response on social media to the second event is that it used two new Twitter hashtags -- "#FukushimaAgain" and "#Chernobyl2015" and (as discovered by myself, Twitter user @doyleclan1, and the World Nuclear Association's Jeremy Gordon,) was spread almost entirely and exclusively by a fleet of robot or spam Twitter accounts.  This clearly was an orchestrated attempt; about sixteen or so accounts were randomly tweeting from a selection of about eight different but fixed pieces of content.  None of the bot accounts responded to us.  Another Twitter user, @swcrisis collected the user names of ten of these apparent bot accounts and reported them to Twitter as spammers.  All of the accounts I saw had little or no bio information and simply said "USA," so as to imply the accounts are American.  Generally young, vibrant and attractive faces were used as account photos.  There was no interaction on these accounts - just tweets being put out.  Each varied as to followers and those being followed.  None was exceedingly large in these numbers.

What this means really is that the "viral" nature of some anti-nuclear hashtags, which makes them appear in "Trending on Twitter" lists, is actually completely phony or else starts that way.  (Not a shock for some folks, is it?) 

The plain facts of the matter are that Ukraine's nuclear plants appear by all indications to be well managed, safe, and those operating and overseeing them appear completely open and honest.  As you'll see if you follow the links I've provided, there is even English language information made available frequently by both the operator of Ukraine's plants as well as the nation's nuclear regulator.  Even the IAEA has spoken up to say that conditions there are nothing to worry about - so clearly IAEA itself is on the spot. 

This entire exercise has been incredibly helpful and instructive to me in a number of ways - I hope that not only nuclear communicators but mainstream media people see this post, read it, and understand it.  The point is that there is no reason to believe Russian news sources about these things, when Russia clearly wants to help Ukraine collapse so it can move in; also, for media, there is a time to call Bill Nye for a fun interview or Michio Kaku for something far out... and then there's a time to contact us (ANS, or NEI, or WNA, etc.) to get real, straight information on reported, supposedly dangerous events at nuclear power plants.

Or you could just look yourself and see what the Ukrainian nuclear plants' owner says.. or what their nuclear regulator says.  It's your call, MSM, but pick one.  Oh, and one more thing - ignore trending on social media.  It might be phony.


Photos of Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant courtesy ENERGOATOM.

11:00 PM Eastern 1/4/2015

Friday, January 2, 2015

Ukraine Nuclear Plants - Resources and Information

For the second time, Russian news sources have reported an incident at a Ukrainian nuclear plant as a much more serious event than it actually was.  The first time this happened is documented by a post I made for the American Nuclear Society; this time, a house load transformer at Zaporizhzhya Unit 6 was the culprit, causing the unit to reduce power to 10 percent and come off the grid.  The unit was back up quickly with no negative effects to anyone inside or outside the plant.

Since it would appear that these news outlets will continue to misrepresent events at this (and perhaps other) Ukrainian nuclear plants, I've decided to construct a post that will give quick links to resources you can use yourself to check on conditions of Ukraine's nuclear plants.

Ukraine's Nuclear Plants

The operator of Ukraine's nuclear plants, all of which date originally from the days of the former Soviet Union, is Energoatom.  Its home page in English is here

There are four nuclear power stations in Ukraine; the one in the news recently and largest in Europe is the massive Zaporizhzhya NPP; Rivne NPP, South Ukraine NPP and Khmelnytska NPP round out the fleet.

•Rivne NPP (sometimes seen as "Rivno") is the oldest of the sites.  The site was originally named the "West Ukraine" NPP and began construction in 1973 with two units of type VVER-440.  These plants were constructed using the updated (1974) V-213 plant design that had vastly improved containment as compared to the older V-230 plant design, and Units 1 and 2 came on line in 1980 and 1981.  The site was expanded by two VVER-1000 plants, units 3 and 4 which came on line in 2004 and 2006 respectively after a construction hiatus.  A planned fifth unit, also a VVER-1000 was never built.  All four units continue in operation today.

South Ukraine NPP is actually part of an enormous energy center called the "South Ukraine Power Complex," which includes not only the nuclear plant but a large pumped storage power plant and a hydro-electric station.  South Ukraine NPP is a three unit plant with Units 1, 2 and 3 being VVER-1000 type.  Originally planned as a two unit station.  The units came on line in 1982, 1985 and 1989 and work together with the Tashlyk Hydro Pumped Storage Power Plant and the Olexandrivska Hydro Power Plant in providing energy for the area.  (The combination of the nuclear plant and pumped storage plant is mentioned in this post on load following nuclear plants.)

•Zaporizhzhya NPP (sometimes seen as  "Zaporizhia" or "Zaporozhye") was ordered in 1977, began construction in 1979 and is Ukraine's (and Europe's) largest nuclear plant.  The site houses six VVER-1000 reactor plants, Units 1 through 6 which came on line between 1984 and 1995 and also houses a large, dry, above ground spent fuel facility placed in operation in 2004.  This plant has its own website

•Khmelnystska NPP (sometimes seen as "Khmelnitskaya") is presently a two unit nuclear station with two operating VVER-1000 nuclear plants, Units 1 and 2 which came on line in 1987 and 2004 - the second unit being held up by the general Ukrainian nuclear construction moratorium 1991-1993.  Two further units, Units 3 and 4 are partially complete on the site (75% and 28% respectively) and Energoatom plans to complete these plants in the future (although no completion date is given on the company's website.)


-Ukrainian nuclear regulator

Ukraine's regulator is the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine; its English language website is located here.  News items are available as they're translated. 

-Ukrainian nuclear plant status

The status of Ukraine's nuclear plants is updated daily at this link.  Click on the most recent date.


Energoatom's Press Center in English is here.

Energoatom has a wonderful photo gallery here that nuclear communicators may wish to access.

The above links and information should give nuclear communicators what they need to find the truth, quickly, in the case of further misleading stories about nuclear plants in the Ukraine.

I welcome the inclusion of further links readers may wish to provide.

Sources consulted include "Soviet Nuclear Power Plants," David Katsman, Delphic Associates 1986

1:15 PM Eastern 1/2/2015


Additional Information for reference - updated 4 PM 1/2/2015

Zaporizhzhya NPP events at Unit 3 on November 28, 2014 and at Unit 6 on December 28, 2014 both were related to the "house power transformers" at the units -- transformers that supply power to the many electrical loads inside the nuclear plants themselves if the turbine generator is not operable or trips.  In the case of the November 28 event, Unit 3 shut down at 19:54 hours safely and was back on the grid on December 6.  In the case of the December 28 event, Unit 6 took its generator off the grid at 05:50 hours but did not experience a reactor trip (scram, or shutdown) and returned its generator to the grid at 22:35 hours the same day.

Unit 3 event press release by Energoatom

Unit 3 event press release from IAEA

Unit 6 event press release from Ukraine nuclear regulator

The event on 28 November has been rated by IAEA as INES Level 0 (zero.)  That on December 28 has not yet been rated by IAEA but is an almost identical circumstance and can be expected as 0.

Friday, December 26, 2014

News from South Korea leads on the wires at year's end

Kori Nuclear Plant, South Korea - courtesy KHNP

Anyone reading the news over the last week -- international news, that is -- has seen stories here and there on the hacking of Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power in South Korea.  On one particular day, I noticed almost 250 stories about this topic listed by Google's news search.  There is much hyperbole going around, very little fact, and frankly no positive official resolution as of yet.


Here's what we know.  On December 9, a number of emails were sent to various personnel at KHNP in administrative capacities which were addressed from well known but retired former nuclear industry members.  These accounts had in fact been hacked.  The emails contained a malware package that then downloaded itself onto the computer being used, and after arranging for information to be sent out set a timer to destroy the hard drive with only a black screen showing the phrase "Who Am I?" left visible.  The hack accessed a number of what might be called proprietary drawings and plans for KHNP nuclear plants (not the newest, so far as is known) as well as reactor core accident analysis models (these are computer programs or codes) or perhaps just the guides for these, as well as personal data of thousands of KHNP and/or KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Company) employees.

The hacker(s) threatened to destroy by meltdown three specific reactors in South Korea if they were not shut down by Christmas.  The hacker(s) did offer the return of the stolen materials but did so with the request for money.  The group said to be behind this is an anti-nuclear group in Hawaii; the actual perpetrators may be in the U.S. or China or both.

Here's the important fact everyone needs to know:  The hackers, even with the apparent high level of skill used in these attacks, cannot access by internet or radio or short wave or any other interactive means any of the control and monitoring equipment for the nuclear reactors.

Or any nuclear reactors.


The plain fact of this has been repeated time and again by insiders over this week, by KHNP itself, and in a Forbes article by James Conca.  So what's the big deal?  Why, over the last 48 hours, were three plants there surrounded by armed troops?  Why did KHNP / KEPCO perform a two day series of cyberattack drills simulating events occurring to the reactor instrumentation and control requiring manual intervention?

There's only one word for this - and that word is "Preparation."  This is the first time that cyber-war has been specifically targeted in this way against power reactors in South Korea, and since there is apparent high skill on the part of the hackers, no one was about to take the specific, targeted threat lightly. 

The thing to know here is that the computers that were hacked had, or had access to (on mainframe) administrative items.  People's HR info; plant drawings one might use for training or planning; accident analysis codes used both for training and for actual simulation of, say, new fuels; guides for operating various pieces of equipment.  This is like breaking into the trailer of a semi-truck and threatening to disable the engine.  It's part of the truck that was broken into, all right -- but not the cab.  Which isn't accessible via the trailer anyway. 

You still guard the truck.  The WHOLE truck.

Resolution awaits

The final resolution of this act may end up taking a long time.  Attempts involving the FBI in the US and requests for help to China have resulted in scanty details as the hackers are chased across the cyber world, having expertly covered their tracks by using multiple IP addresses.  It may not be known for years -- or maybe, never known -- who actually did this, even if the organization behind it has at least been labeled ("Who Am I" in Hawaii, it's thought.) 

The key of course here is that persons should not open emails with files unless they're expecting those files.  All computers at any plant should have anti-virus running at all times, with appropriate security settings.  Those computers should be firewalled from any plant information if they're on the net. 

Hollywood - right on time, oddly, again

Now, just as this all hits the fan we see coming out a new cyber-combat-war-intrigue movie called "Blackhat," in which hackers supposedly not only hack but control and then melt down and then cause to explode (we're not yet clear on all this) a reactor or two in Taiwan.  Some details.

•There are nuclear plants in Taiwan.
•Their instrumentation and control is not on the net either.
•Unless there's a massive inside job, this isn't any more possible than in South Korea.

The ONLY way this can happen is with an inside job, and something like the whole STUXNET debacle happening.  Believe me though - those lessons were learned.

And we must remember -- the explosions that happened at Fukushima Daiichi Units 1 and 3 (and secondarily at Unit 4) were caused by hydrogen and perhaps carbon monoxide combustion as a result of the core damage to the reactors.  These were NOT explosions of the reactors - the buildings exploded because they were filled with combustible gases.

Now, no one can say that these types of events such as Fukushima Daiichi CAN'T happen (this is why we have such elaborate containment in the first place -- and note that at Three Mile Island, the same thing happened but not no damage occurred because of the completely different containment building design) but we will have to wait and see what this movie is actually saying was done.

Ah, and there was that name -- Three Mile Island.  You know, the accident that occurred right around the time the movie "The China Syndrome" came out?  (Some people think this is no coincidence;  I disagree, but the timing could not have been more striking.)  Now we have this event of cyber threat and right at the same time a movie on the way about it.  Does Hollywood mirror events, or do events follow Hollywood?  Not sinister; just interesting.

Shin-Kori Units 3,4,5 and 6 - APR1400 type.  Courtesy KHNP

Good news

There was a piece of good news that came out of South Korea, but because of the frenzy over the hacking job, it was missed or skipped.  On December 23, KHNP submitted documents to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to get the Design Certification for the APR1400 back moving in the United States.  This reinvigorates a process that NRC had halted in December 2013 when it rejected the Design Certification Application from KHNP citing incomplete information.  So, as I reported earlier this year for the American Nuclear Society, it still looks as if the next design to be certified in the US will probably be the APR1400 - which will be a major feather in the cap for KHNP and is considered an icebreaker to further export of the design worldwide.

1:00 PM Eastern 12/26/2014

Monday, December 1, 2014

Last day to comment on EPA Clean Power Rule

Today, December 1, is the last day to comment on the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed Clean Power Rule.

This rule is detrimental - unfair, that is - to nuclear energy for two reasons:

•The rule does not credit present nuclear generation the way it credits renewables
•The rule does not credit nuclear plants presently under construction but not yet completed as contributing in the future to carbon emission reduction.

MAKE YOUR COMMENT TODAY....  I did!  The comments are open until 11:59 PM Eastern Daylight Time.

Click here to reach the EPA page for commenting on the Clean Power Rule.

The American Nuclear Society (of which I'm a member) has come out, not surprisingly, against the rule.  Read more about the ANS position on the rule by clicking here.

10:25 AM Eastern 12/1/2014

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

NRA finds fault under JAPC Tsuruga NPP "recently active"

A report today is out that the Nuclear Regulation Authority in Japan has received report from an independent expert panel that faults near and under Japan Atomic Power Company's Tsuruga Nuclear Plant may be considered active.

Debate has gone back and forth between the NRA and JAPC about the most recent active dates for faults near the plant.  An NRA panel found likelihood of activity near or under Unit 2 at the plant in May of 2013, after which JAPCo convened its own study to counter the NRA report.

An English summary of the June 2014 "Second Review" by JAPC can be found here.

Now, the NRA has returned to yet again counter JAPC with a further report.  The uptake from this is that if JAPC cannot prove to the NRA that the faults near the nuclear plant haven't been active in a VERY long time, i.e. 120,000 to 130,000 years, and cannot move, then JAPC may be forced to decommission the Tsuruga NPP.

Located at Tsuruga are two units - of course long since shut down, along with all other Japanese nuclear plants.  Tsuruga Unit 1 is a Boiling Water Reactor that went into service in 1970, while Unit 2 is a Pressurized Water Reactor which went into operation in 1987.  Preparations were underway at the site to construct two more units, which were to have been Mitsubishi APWR units but that construction has been deferred indefinitely.

Neither of these units at Tsuruga have applied to the NRA for restart examination; JAPCo's only operative unit on the opposite coast (the East coast of Japan) from Tsuruga, which is Tokai No. 2 has applied for restart and should the decommissioning of the units at Tsuruga be necessary Tokai No. 2 would be JAPC's only remaining operational unit.

Should this finding of seismic activity be upheld, Tsuruga would be the first NPP in Japan forced to decommission on seismic grounds following the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

11:45 AM Eastern 11/19/2014

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Goodbye, Harry Reid; Hello, Yucca Mountain?

... well, goodbye as Majority Leader in the Senate, anyway.  The house of cards that Reid built - predicated upon supposed safety issues with Yucca Mountain - has fallen.

•Jaczko, Reid's hand-picked slave servant, is long gone from the NRC Chairmanship and has been clearly recognized for what he is -- solidly anti-nuclear.

•The NRC Staff has released Volume 3 of the SER for Yucca Mountain, saying that it's safe to use as a long term geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel.

•Macfarlane, chosen to succeed Jaczko and who is on the record as being against Yucca Mountain, has vacated her position -- likely because there's no scientific support to say it's unsafe, and because there's no political support for that position to be held.

•Reid, the anti-Yucca Majority Leader, cannot hold that job any more after the mid-term election results last night.

NEI Nuclear Notes has just published a great, short piece introducing us to this new world that might have just a bit less anti-nuclear rhetoric and a bit less decision making without knowledge.  You can find that new piece by clicking here.  Alex Flint does a great job of beginning to crack open the door on what the new world may look like - at least for the next two years.

Note his mention of Barbara Boxer.

Folks who are pro-nuclear have good reason to be happy this morning. 

11:00 AM Eastern 11/5/2014

Monday, October 20, 2014

Multiple Parties Rush to Restore Doel 4

I've reported quite a bit here (and at ANS Nuclear Cafe) on the ongoing investigation concerning perceived reactor vessel flaws at two Belgian nuclear plants.  While that's ongoing, a recent event saw apparent deliberate action to dump turbine lube oil from Doel 4's turbine generator while it was at full load, causing extensive damage.

At this time, two well known turbine generator manufacturers are working to restore the machine - Alstom is performing work on the high pressure turbine, while Siemens is working on the low pressure turbines.  It's hoped that the plant can be back on line before the new year.

Here's the statement at the time of the incident from FANC, the Belgian nuclear regulator:

FANC investigates on automatic shutdown of Doel 4 NPP
8 August 2014 - The Doel 4 nuclear power plant was automatically shut down on Tuesday 5 August 2014, as a result of an oil leak on the steam turbine. This turbine is located in the non nuclear part of the NPP. A FANC expert team went to the site to make the necessary assessments.

Its conclusion is that this oil leak probably resulted from a voluntary manual intervention. Further investigation should reveal the precise circumstances behind this event. Meanwhile, the FANC has already taken additional action to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations.

After the automatic reactor shutdown, it appeared that one of the three auxiliary feedwater pumps was unavailable due to a technical problem. However, the reactor was shut down in safe condition with no other problem. After investigation, this anomaly was rated as level 1 on the INES scale.

This incident had no impact neither on the safety of the workers and population, nor on the environment.
3:15 PM Eastern 10/20/2014

Friday, October 17, 2014

Where is Will, and by the way, Pakistan might be crazy

Some of you might have noticed a distinct reduction in posting here.  That's because for about a month I've been handling all social media for the American Nuclear Society, in the wake of some shaking up at headquarters, in addition to being in on a number of other projects.  So I've been quite busy actually -- it's just that everything has been coming out under the ANS brand.

I've also made the decision to launch a local, Ohio initiative that looks at energy more broadly than just all-nuclear all-the-time, and which will engage (hopefully) some of the local interests here on all sides.  You'll see more of that later.


For now, as I scan the headlines / Facebook posts / Twitterverse for news items today, I run across this little gem:

"Pakistan court stops construction work on nuclear power plants."

Now, the basic premise here is this:  Since the vendor for the proposed nuclear plants in Karachi, which is CNNC or China National Nuclear Corporation, has never built and operated the particular model of nuclear plant slated for this project (the ACP-1000) then the court believes that the environmental assessment is invalid.  This order was issued after receipt of a petition by an environmentalist group (I use that term very loosely indeed) who had made the case for this finding.

The Chinese must believe that Pakistan has some problems - I would.  After all, it's in China that the first-ever Westinghouse AP1000 plants are being built.  In other words, China is the location for a true FOAK (First Of A Kind) nuclear plant not indigenous to China.  On the other hand, it's not really perfectly correct to say that the CNNC ACP1000 is something totally new, out of left field.  That plant derives from over 30 years of work by CNNC in developing indigenous nuclear plant technology.

The ACP1000 nuclear plant is described as GENIII+ by its vendor; the NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) was developed in concert with Westinghouse and Framatome (AREVA now) and is a three loop pressurized water design, very much like designs marketed and built for decades by Westinghouse, and then by its other licensees, again such as Framatome/AREVA (who have extrapolated and advanced designs beyond the 'break' with Westinghouse.)  The overall power plant isn't a totally clean sheet of paper sort of thing, but rather a design developed from decades of experience in Chinese nuclear plants.  CNNC lists in its sales brochure the following points of interest to any discussion of the declaration of "unproven effect" by the Pakistani court:

•  ACP1000 is designed using structures, systems and components already proven in China in existing NPP's (Nuclear Power Plants)
•  Structures, systems and components of new or recent design are acceptable and satisfactory operation can be demonstrated for conditions similar to that of new (existing) plants
•  Extrapolation of the design, size, capacity, duty, etc. of proven structures, systems and components to ACP1000 are reasonable
•  Safety structures, systems and components have been thoroughly tested and approved by the Chinese safety authority (NNSA.)

So it appears then as if the Pakistani court will have to either decide, or defer to other authority, whether or not this new plant design is so far off base compared to existing practice that its safety cannot be assured.

(SPOILER ALERT:  It's not that far off.)

Given this kind of finding (which might indeed just be a temporary holdup for a week or two... but one never knows) one might wonder if the vendors might have to assess whether or not to offer designs for export that are already operating instead of which merely are design certified and/or under construction.  Were this the case, let's say, with the UAE and its Barakah plant, then the South Koreans would not be building the advanced APR1400 plants there but rather the older OPR1000 or perhaps the updated OPR1000+ plants.  And yet again it's hard to offer 'last year's model' in the competitive export world.   

We shall wait and see.

Enough of that - back to work I go!

1:15 PM Eastern October 17, 2014

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Nuclear Risk Research Center

Japan's Central Electric Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, an entity that serves all of the utilities in Japan, has created a subsidiary Nuclear Risk Research Center, whose website launched today.

Dr. George Apostolakis, a former Commissioner at the US NRC, is heading this effort.

See the website at this link.  I will also add a link into the "Fukushima Accident Reports" stand-alone page on this site, since it's very clear that the development of this entity is a direct result of the accident and perceived need to change how we analyze events.

12:45 PM Eastern October 1, 2014

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

Fukushima Daiichi links, facts; Japan nuclear guide

Just a couple items relative to Fukushima Daiichi....

•I've updated my Fukushima Accident Page with links to the most recent analysis of "unexplained events" during the accident, as developed by TEPCO.  There are, and continue to be, a number of unexplained phenomena during the accident that TEPCO is striving to deciper, and this body of work addresses those most important to progress in both decommissioning and overall analysis.  It's significant to note that the amount of fuel damage estimated in all three reactors continues, once again, to slowly increase over time.  Some might recall early estimates / statements by TEPCO that major fuel damage had occurred in all three units, which was then backed away from; reports by TEPCO at the ANS Winter Meeting I attended two years ago began then to intimate more severe damage.  This present report essentially duplicates the developed results I heard at that meeting.

TEPCO has decided to scrap the AREVA produced decontamination system at Fukushima Daiichi, which sat unused for essentially three years.  This event has gone practically unnoticed in nuclear press.  The cost of the equipment has not been revealed, and apparently isn't open for discussion.

And relative to Japan in general...

•It's no secret that all nuclear utilities in Japan have applied to restart at least one reactor each, and it's also no secret that Japan is actively trying to export nuclear energy in order to help its economy.  In light of that, it's interesting that the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum has published an all-new "Nuclear Energy Buyers Guide in Japan" volume, which is available for free on the net.  Click here to get this document, which has a great wealth of information in both graphic and tabular form. 

12:25 PM Eastern 9/3/2014